Skye, Dunvegan Castle

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Alternative Names Began's Dun; Gatepiers; Causeway; Bridge; Dunvegan Castle Policies
Site Type BRIDGE, CASTLE, CAUSEWAY
Canmore ID 10835
Site Number NG24NW 7
NGR NG 24740 49106
Council HIGHLAND
Parish DUIRINISH
Former Region HIGHLAND
Former District SKYE AND LOCHALSH
Former County INVERNESS-SHIRE
Datum OSGB36 - NGR

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Dunvegan Castle, 13 th century and later, occupying an earlier Norse site The seat of the Macleod chiefs (see P.257) belongs to a large group of GĂ idhealtachd strongholds (for example, Tioram, Dunollie and Dunstaffnage), the key elements of which still survive beneath the castle's largely 19th century appearance. Situated high on a sea-girt plug of basalt overlooking Loch Dunvegan, the present structure was begun, probably in the 13 th century, with a curtain wall that completely enclosed the promontory; fragments of this can still be seen. It was accessed through the sea gate, the only entrance until 1748, which survives still. At the back of the enclosure would have been the main building, or feasting hall, with associated buildings. In the late 14 th/early 15th century a large tower house was added to the north - a four-storey structure with defensive features, built to provide fashionable family accommodation. In about 1500, the Fairy Tower, a smaller, independent tower house probably intended for guests, was added by Alasdair Crotach, the 8th chief, on the south-east corner of the enclosure. During the Renaissance, the feasting hall was replaced by a fairly typical 'main house' of state apartment above cellars with accommodation above, built by Ruairidh Mor, 15th Chief, in 1623 . His grandson, Iain Breac, added the splendid landward-facing Pipers' Gallery in 1664, the detail of its balustrading very reminiscent of Craigievar's belvederes; in 1684-90 he added the south wing. As was customary at this period, the old tower was abandoned for the more comfortable living quarters. It remained roofless until 1790-1, when the architect/mason Walter Boak began the Georgianisation of the castle for Gen. Norman, the 23 rd chief. The hall of the re-roofed tower became the present drawing room - incongruously, just feet from the pit dungeon below - and among other additions was a barrack block on the north-west corner of the complex. In line with fashion and the fortunes of the Macleods, Dunvegan became increasingly modernised and homogenised, with spurious battlements concealing genuine antiquity. Sir Walter Scott, visiting in 1814 , noted approvingly the efforts of John Norman, 24 th Chief, to 'medievalise' the castle 'by making a portal between two advanced towers and an outer court, from which he proposes to throw a drawbridge over to the high rock in front'. (John Norman also continued the planting begun by his father and built the walled garden and other ancillary buildings). Further mock battlements and other alterations, including the eastern approach bridge, new porch and thinly Jacobean-style internal remodelling, were made by Robert Brown Jnr in the 1840s for Norman, the 25th chief. The west-facing dining room and library, arranged as a suite with interconnecting Georgian-style doorcases, are of this period, as is the billiard room (now the North Room) in the former barrack block. Among the prize trophies preserved inside the castle are the famous Fairy Flag, the Dunvegan Cup, and Ruairidh Mor's Drinking Horn. Ancillary buildings include: Laundry Cottage, dated 1734 , long and low with moulded architraves and crowstepped gables, formerly the estate office/factor's house, later the laundry. Stables/coachhouses/steadings, 1811 , a roofless U-plan court in handsome classical style, with pavilioned corners and ends emphasised by great, round-arched recesses, and smart dressings of pale ashlar. The adjacent sawmill retains its old machinery. The Cottage, 19th century addition to earlier core - one time dower house, pretty with latticed mullions, an older, thick-walled dwelling still evident behind its cottagey Tudor front.

Taken from "Western Seaboard: An Illustrated Architectural Guide", by Mary Miers, 2008. Published by the Rutland Press http://www.rias.org.uk


Architectural Notes

OWNER: Dame Flora MacLeod of MacLeod

ARCHITECT: William Burn (?)
Robert Brown - remodelling work 1840 - 50
Colin Sinclair - repairs after fire 1938 - 40
NMRS LIBRARY
'Scottish Country Life' May 1930, page 140 - photograph.

NMRS REFERENCE:
Dunvegan Castle, The Danish Tower.
Also referred to as the Danish fort.

DUNVEGAN CASTLE DRAWINGS
NMRS Photographic survey of drawings at Dunvegan Castle including; designs for additions to Dunvegan Castle by Robert Brown 1840 etc.
Copied 1982 Inventory 107

DUNVEGAN ESTATE OFFICE DRAWINGS
Nmrs Photographic curvey of Dunvegan Estate Office drawings copied per SRO including: survey plans of Dunvegan Castle by K and E MacKenzie 1920; design for improvement to Castle kitchens 1939; designs for restoration after fire of 24th November 1938 by Colin Simpson 1939; contract drawings for Dunvegan Hotel by Alexander Ross 1868; designs for Dunvegan Village Hall 1894; designs for estate buildings and a survey of St Kilda by John Mathieson.
Copied 1979 Inventory 107

EXTERNAL REFERENCE:
SCOTTISH RECORD OFFICE
1. Plan of part of castle showing proposed alterations
2. West elevation.
[1840]
Billiard room on level with present drawing room. MacLeod Private Collection
Plans of 2nd and 3rd storey of North wing. Give dimensions in great detail. c.1812

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Archaeological Notes

NG24NW 7.00 24740 49106

NG24NW 7.01 NG 24629 49540 Stables; Saw Mill
NG24NW 7.02 NG 24669 49025 Laundry
NG24NW 7.03 NG 2482 4897 Gardens
NG24NW 7.04 NG 24756 48891 Walled garden and sundial
NG24NW 7.05 NG 24768 49071 Bridge

See also:
NG24NW 13 NG 24700 49616 Dunvegan Estate, The Cottage
NG24NW 42 NG c. 248 490 Dunvegan Estate, Gardener's Cottage
NG24NW 43.00 NG 248 490 Dunvegan Estate, General
NG24NW 43.01 NG 248 496 Dunvegan Estate, Manager's House

Dunvegan Castle occupies the summit of a rock which projects on to the eastern shore of an inlet. On the landward side it is isolated by a ditch, partly natural and partly artifical, about 60ft in width and 18ft in present depth. There seems little doubt that the rock was the site of a dun of some island chief at an early date. The name is said to mean 'Began's Dun'. All traces of any prehistoric structure seems to have been swept away for the medieval works.
In the 13th century, after the annexation of the Western Isles by Alexander III in 1266, the summit of the rock was enclosed with a certain wall with arched entrance, the sea gate, from which steps led up to yhe platform area, the only entrance to the castle till 1748. In the second half of the 14th century, a keep, 48ft by 35ft, was built at the NE angle of the rock. Early in the 16th century, the 'Fairy Tower' was added at the SE corner, and between these two towers extends Roy Mor's work, erected 1623. The SW wing was built between 1684 and 1690. All these buildings have been much altered by the 19th century transformation.
RCAHMS 1928; W D Simpson 1963.

Dunvegan Castle, the ancestral home of the Macleods, is the private residence of Dame Flora Macleod of Macleod. It is described above, and is in excellent condition.
Visited by OS (A S P) 17 May 1961.

 
Books and References

Bogle, L (1895b) 'Archaeological notes on Dunvegan Castle', Proc Soc Antiq Scot, vol.24
Page(s): 255-71

Forman, S (1964d) 'Dunvegan: home of the MacLeods of MacLeod for seven centuries', Scot Fld, vol.111, 742 October
Page(s): 36 - 38

Forman, S (1967) Scottish country houses and castles, Glasgow
Page(s): 166 -8 166 - 8 Held at RCAHMS F.5.41.FOR

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