Sculptor's Cave, Covesea
Site Type CAVE, HUMAN REMAINS, PICTISH SYMBOL ROCK CARVING(S) (PICTISH), BEAD(S) (AMBER), BEAD(S), BROOCH(S), COIN(S) (ROMAN), NEEDLE(S), PIN(S)
Canmore ID 16278
Site Number NJ17SE 1
NGR NJ 1750 7072
Former Region GRAMPIAN
Former District MORAY
Former County MORAYSHIRE
Datum OSGB36 - NGR
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|Notes and Activities|
|DESK BASED ASSESSMENT|
Notes NJ17SE 1 1750 7072
The Pictish Sculpturings in the Sculptor's Cave include the Fish, Crescent & V-rod, Pentacle, Triple Vesica, Step, Mirror-Case, and also Rectangular symbols. (Between the authorities are variations in the number of the symbols and in minor details of the drawings. All are detached, incised and simple. and appear to be early in design)
Information from OS.
J Stuart 1867; J R Allen and J Anderson 1903.
|1928 to 1930||EXCAVATION|
Notes The Sculptor's Cave, Covesea, excavated 1928-9, is so named from the Pictish sculpturings on the walls. The occupation layers revealed yielded Bronze Age and Roman pottery, rings, bracelets, needles, etc., Roman coins, some of which had been re-used for ornaments, and a Viking rivet, human, animal, fish and bird bones.
The Bronze Age objects were probably indigenous, but much of the Roman material was probably lost.
S Benton 1931; G Macdonald 1934.
|12 November 1962||FIELD VISIT|
Notes Finds from the Sculptor's Cave dating from the Bronze Age to the 4th century AD, and including Iron Age pottery, are in the Elgin Museum.
Visited by OS (EGC) 12 November 1962.
|3 December 1962||FIELD VISIT|
Notes The Sculptor's Cave is at NJ 1750 7072. This cave still has clear-cut excavation trenches,and a number of sculptures that could have given the cave its name, were noticed. The cave has two entrances, side by side and partly boarded up. The east entrance is 3.0m wide and 2.5m high; and that on the west is 2.0m wide and 4.5m high (where excavated). From the entrances, two passages, 11.0m long, run into a cavern 20.0 x 13.5m and 4.0m high. The floor near the entrance is of trampled earth and, in the interior, of loose shingle.
Visited by OS (RDL) 3 December 1962.
Notes A Roman strip of bronze, 1 3/16" by 1/8" by 1/12, which divides into two for the last 3/8", inscribed SPILV, with P and L reversed, from the 1929 excavation is in the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland [NMAS].
D R Wilson 1966.
Notes Roman finds consist of 2nd century Samian and coarse pottery and 4th century strap-ends but 4th century penannular brooches, needles,pins and rings, all of bronze, may be Roman and some glass beads may be of re-used Roman glass.
All are in NMAS.
A S Robertson 1970.
Notes Seven amber beads, of Late Iron Age or Romano-British date, were found in a mixed settlement layer in the Cave. There are large amounts of material from the layer but associations of the amber are mixed in date (NMAS acc no.HM204, 206-8). Only three beads (and fragments) are extant. There is one medium-sized annular bead with a rounded rectangule longitudinal section. A second bead is medium-sized, of short cylindrical shape with sharp edges a circular cross-section and rectangular longitudinal section. The third surviving bead is medium-sized, truncated conical shape with a circular cross-section and trepezoidal longitudinal section.
The beads range in size from between 10.5mm and 17.5mm in diameter or length by between 6mm and 15.5mm in thickness.
C Beck and S Shennan 1991
Notes Several groups of symbols have been cut near the mouths of the two entrance passageways to this large cave, which is set in the sandstone sea-cliffs. (No symbols have been found in the body of the cave itself, despite careful searching with the aid of floodlights in 1979):
1. On the E side of the E entrance passage, a fish (standing on its tail) adjacent to a crescent and V-rod. (Allen and Anderson, fig. 135)
2. On the W side of the E entrance passage near the roof, two pentacles, side by side. (Allen and Anderson, fig. 135a)
3. On the E wall of the W entrance passage, a triple oval (other marks nearby include two small rectangles with concave long sides, probably not Pictish). (Allen and Anderson, fig. 135b)
4. On the W wall of the W entrance passage, a simple crescent and V-rod, a 'step' symbol like an inverted hollow L, a double rectangular symbol, and two discs and rectangles. (Allen and Anderson, fig. 135c)
5. On the roof 'canopy' between the two entrance passages, a triple oval and a flower symbol.
6. High on the E side of the W entrance, an area of confused incised markings in very soft sandstone, in which a large mirror and a crescent can be discerned.
On the W side of the W entrance, a small crescent, possibly with a V-rod (damaged).
Notes This gloomy and near-inaccessible cave lies in a small bay on the S shore of the Moray Firth. It takes its name from a series of Pictish symbols carved on its entrance walls, and may have served a predominantly ritual function throughout its period of use.
In 1929-30, excavation by Sylvia Benton revealed evidence for two major periods of activity. The earliest cultural deposits are dated by their associated metalwork to the Ewart Park phase (c. 1000-800BC) of the Late Bronze Age. A later occupation layer contained a rich assemblage of Roman Iron Age material (notably coins, rings, pins, beads, bracelets and toilet instruments) ranging from the 2nd to the 4th centuries AD. In the late 1970¿s, Ian and Alexandra Shepherd conducted rescue excavation on the limited remaining deposits, which Benton had left within the twin entrance-passages; further Late Bronze Age metalwork was revealed.
The most striking feature of the cave is the (formerly) substantial assemblage of human remains that was revealed in both programmes of excavation. Benton apparently recovered around 1800 human bones scattered throughout the deposits. Examination (by Alexander Low) was cursory, being limited to the recognition of a `large proportion of bones of young individuals¿ among the material discarded. The few bones that were retained were limited to fused cervical vertebrae from adults, showing cut-marks indicative of decapitation. The Shepherds found further bones, including several mandibles from juveniles, which may indicate the display of severed heads at the cave entrance.
Notwithstanding the limited stratigraphic control and lack of dating evidence, the entire human bone assemblage was long assigned to the Late Bronze Age. However, re-examination of the cervical vertebrae raised doubts, at least some of the cut-marks having been made by sharp and heavy blades, tentatively seen as iron. Further examination using scanning electron microscopy is planned. An initial bone sample from one of these vertebrae has yielded an AMS date of 1738+/- 33bp (UB-6930), which may be calibrated (at 2 sigma) to AD 231-395, firmly within the Roman Iron Age.
Is it possible that the human bones derive from at least two distinct episodes over a millennium apart? The possibility may be considered that there were two periods of deposition, that in the LBA seeing the deposition of the remains of children, with some emphasis on the placing of heads at the entrance, and that in the RIA represented by the remains of several decapitated individuals. Concern with the removal, curation and display of human heads is a persistent trait across prehistoric Europe. To this end, a further programme of AMS dating and osteological analysis is in hand.
I Armit and R Schulting 2007.
|Books and References|
Allen and Anderson, J R and J (1903) The early Christian monuments of Scotland: a classified illustrated descriptive list of the monuments with an analysis of their symbolism and ornamentation, Edinburgh
Page(s): pt.3, 129-31 Held at RCAHMS G.1.11.ALL
Armit and Mckenzie, I and J (2013) An Inherited Place: Broxmouth Hillfort and the South-East Scottish Iron Age, Edinburgh
Page(s): 263 268 279 Held at RCAHMS E.9.1.ARM
Armit and Schulting, I and R (2007) 'An Iron Age decapitation from the Sculptor's Cave, Covesea, Northeast Scotland', Past: Newsletter of the Prehistoric Society, vol.55
Page(s): 1-3 illus.