Yesnaby, Broch Of Borwick

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Alternative Names Yescanaby
Site Type BROCH, MIDDEN, UNIDENTIFIED POTTERY (IRON AGE)
Canmore ID 1660
Site Number HY21NW 1
NGR HY 2241 1678
Council ORKNEY ISLANDS
Parish SANDWICK
Former Region ORKNEY ISLANDS AREA
Former District ORKNEY
Former County ORKNEY
Datum OSGB36 - NGR

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Archaeological Notes

HY21NW 1 2241 1678.

(HY 2241 1678) Brough of Borwick (NR)
O.S.6"map, Orkney, 2nd ed.,(1903).

The Broch of Borwick occupies the summit of a promontory, 80-90ft above the sea, with a small sandy bay on its south side. The pormontory must have originally been cut off from the land by an outer wall which ran along the edge of a shallow depression some 82ft broad, thought by some to be artificial. At the point where this wall met the south cliff there are the remains of a building with a chamber. According to Watt, in 1881 the whole of the promontory with- in this outer wall was covered with the remains of 'out- buildings'. Some of these buildings were traced by the RCAHMS. "... at a distance of some 60ft from the tower ..."
Before excavation in 1881 (W G T Watt 1882) the broch appeared as a turf-covered mound 15-20 ft high. Watt found that the wall of the broch varied from 11ft 5 ins to 16ft in thickness and stood up to at least 16ft in height, enclosing an area about 24ft in diameter. This was reduced by secondary building to a court about 16ft in diameter, the later construction standing on a three-foot depth of broch debris. An analogous structure at Dun Mor Vaul, Tiree (NM04NW ) produced 2nd century AD material.
The RCAHM found in 1937 that the seaward side of the broch had fallen and that the walls stood to about 8 1/2 ft high, and that there was no trace of any internal detail.
RCAHMS 1946; E W MacKie 1965.

The Broch of Borwick is generally as described by the RCAHMS.The interior is a mass of tumbled debris, where a length of only c.1.5m. of the walling of the secondary structure could be found, on the north side. The outbuildings and wall could be traced only for very short lengths and the building at the junction of the wall and the south cliff is now almost unrecognisable because of cliff erosion.
Visited by OS(RL) 15 May 1966.

The outer face of the broch tower has been removed by marine erosion for a distance of c.4m on the S side, with a further 2-3m on either side of the gap surviving to basal course only.
A midden, lying on bedrock, has been revealed 9m NE of the tower in t he cliff section. This contained ash and 10 fragments of Middle Iron Age pottery, fragments of animal bone, a piece of perforated flagstone, and shells. A floot tank with basal slab lies 3m W of the midden and contained a scatter of earth and rabbit bone. The possible remains of a wall running E-W overlie the tank and midden.
The pottery has been deposited in Tankerness House Museum, Kirkwall ( Accession no. THM 1983. 137), along with a fuller report of the site. The other finds were left in situ.
D Lynn and B Bell 1983.

The midden, noted in 1983 produced six further fragments of middle Iron Age pottery, including two rim sherds. A bone fragment (possibly a sheep ulna) also found had been shaped to a point and polished. Its length is 133mm.
Further erosion of the S face of the broch tower had taken place, together with the exposure of further indeterminate structural remains to the SE of the broch. A full report has been deposited in Tankerness House Museum, Kirkwall, with the finds. (Accession nos: pottery fragments (all) THM 1987.127, bone point THM 1987.128).
D Lynn and B Bell 1987.

'The Orcadian' extensively describes the excavation of Broch of Borwick, including a sea-level chamber, between December 1-15 1906. The paper describes the site again in 1910.
M Howe 2006


 PUBLICATION ACCOUNT

Project Euan W Mackie Broch Corpus 1

Notes HY21 1 BORWICK (‘Broch of Borthwick’, ‘Bur-wick’)
HY/22411678
Solid-based broch in Sandwick, on a cliff promontory next to flat farmland. The site, originally a green mound, was explored by W.G.T. Watt in 1881, but his description of the broch he discovered is not as clear as it might have been, mainly because he published no plan of the site.

The broch stands on top of a cliff promontory which falls 18.3-24.4 m (60 - 80 ft.) sheer to the sea and rolling, cultivated land runs right up to it. A small stream runs past the site immediately to the E. The promontory was cut off from the flat land beyond by an outer wall; a shallow depression immediately beyond it may be a ditch. Outbuildings were found between the wall and the broch.

In 1881 the wall of the ruined tower stood to a height of 3.4 m (11 ft.) and in places reached 4.9 m (16 ft.). The Commission measured the wall height as 2.6 m (8.5 ft.) in 1935 [3], so considerable dilapidation occurred during the half century after the excavation; the building now seems to be fairly stable. The entrance passage, still lintelled over, was 5.57 m (18 ft. 3 in.) long with door-checks each formed of a slab set on edge 2.97 m (9 ft. 9 in.) from the outside; the actual broch entrance is only 4.3-4.6 m (14-15 ft.) long as a secondary wall had been added to the inner face at some stage (below). A guard cell opened off the right of the passage; the door was 1.57 m (5 ft. 2 in.) high but rubble now chokes the passage to within 45 cm (18 in.) of its lintels. There are no clear signs of bar-holes behind the door. The passage is lintelled only down as far as the door frame and there is a void or chamber above these; this void is taken here as an indication that the structure is a hollow-walled broch. If the building stood to 4.9 m (16 ft.) in 1881 Watt should have uncovered traces of the upper gallery and the intra-mural stair on the wall head but he makes no mention of any such features; presumably the stair started at first floor level but was not observed.

Watt cleared the debris from the interior and found under the rubble "unctuous matter" containing ashes, bones and shells mixed with clay to a depth of 60 cm (2 ft.) or more. Underneath this layer was a layer of small flat stones from 60-90 cm (2-3 ft.) thick and under this the broch floor. Some flagstones on edge were just showing above the "unctuous matter" and "crude inner circular walls" rested on the 90 cm (3 ft.) thick basal stone layer. This presumably refers to the secondary wall round the interior shown on the Commission's plan; this is 2.58 m (8.5 ft.) thick at the entrance.

There seem to have been secondary oblong chambers in the interior, presumably formed of the flags on edge; a secondary stairway on the east side is also described, founded on the basal stony layer. No signs of mural galleries, stairs or chambers were apparent then and none are now. The basal course of the outer wall face projects forward slightly from those above.

From the verbal description it sounds as though the interior stratigraphy of the broch showed a mass of small masonry debris on the original floor level - perhaps derived from the partial demolition of the upper walls - with a secondary wall (perhaps built of the larger stones from the demolished wall) built round the interior on top of it. The "unctuous matter" then accumulated during the subsequent, secondary habitation of the broch. The composite bone comb found would fit into the late Iron Age phase of this secondary occupation, perhaps in the 6th or 7th centuries AD, as at Burrian broch on North Ronaldsay (HY75 1) and in the late levels in Dun Cuier on Barra (NF 60 3). The long-handled combs are character-istic middle Iron Age broch period artefacts (visited 19/7/63 and in 191985).

In 1983 a midden lying on bedrock was found in the cliff face 9 m NE of the broch; it contained Iron Age pottery, ash and animal bones [4].

Dimensions: External diameter 16.8 m (55 ft.): internal 8.2 m (27 ft.). The wall thickness varies from 3.49 m (11 ft. 5 in.) on the west through 4.3-4.6 m (14-15 ft.) on the south and east to 4.9 m (16 ft.) on the N. The walls proportion may thus be about 47.3%. The entrance passage was 1.58 m (5 ft. 2 in.) high, 1.05 m (3 ft. 5 in.) wide at the base at the exterior, narrowing to 90 cm (2 ft. 11 in.) at the checks; it then widened again to 1.53 m (5 ft.).

Finds [2]: the artefacts found are given no provenance but it may be supposed that many of them came from the "unctuous" earth -- the debris of the secondary occupation of the tower. The more important include, of bone, 2 long- handled bone combs (one fish-tailed), 1 composite, single-edged round-backed comb, 1 single-edged non-composite comb, 1 broken double-edged composite comb, 1 small whale vertebra cup, 1 socketed handle, 3 needles or bodkins (1 decorated), a spindle whorl, antler tines, a cetacean ivory toggle and a possible antler bridle cheek-piece.

Stone: objects included some thin, round stone discs, probably pot lids, a polished gaming piece, a possible stone lamp, a perforated whetstone, hammerstones, some Skaill knives and choppers, and some querns (type not stated). A full list of the finds has been compiled [5].
Iron: 1 rod.
Pottery: 1 native sherd.

Sources: 1. OS card HY21NW 1: 2. Watt 1882, 442-50: 3. RCAHMS 1946, 2, no. 679, 252-3 and figs. 344, 345 (plates) and 347 (plan): 4. D. Lynn and B. Bell in Discovery and Excavation Scotland 1983, 19: 5. Hedges et al. 1987, 83-5: Fraser 1924, 26.
E W MacKie 2002

Further details

April 2008 to November 2011
 GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY

Notes HY 22945 16391 (centred on) An extensive walkover survey, covering c750ha, was undertaken between April 2008 November 2011 over an area of Yesnaby and Skaill Bay on the W coast of mainland Orkney, as part of PhD research. More than 200 sites were identified ranging from Bronze Age burnt mounds to post-medieval buildings and enclosures. Most significantly an extensive upland field system was identified around the probable Bronze Age roundhouse on the Peerie Hill. A targeted gradiometer survey was undertaken on three sites within the survey area.
The gradiometer survey of c2.2ha covering the Peerie Hill roundhouse and surrounding field system was of limited success due to the effect of peat growth and soil erosion. However, it did suggest that the roundhouse had at least two phases of occupation. A survey of a c3.75ha area inland of the Broch of Borwick (HY21NW 1) recorded responses indicative of rig and furrow, and a series of post-medieval field boundaries were also noted. However, the level of magnetic enhancement suggests that these features are reworking substantial deposits of anthropogenic soil, which appear to be associated with the broch. A survey of c1ha on the promontory fort at the Brough of Bigging (HY21NW 7) revealed clusters of apparently non-domestic responses, which seem to be related to the cist-like features and deposits of burnt material that are eroding from the NW side of the promontory.
Report: Orkney SMR and RCAHMS (intended)
Funder: Orkney College UHI
Orkney College UHI, 2011

Further details

 
Books and References

Ballin Smith, B (2002b) 'The relentless pursuit of the sea: Breckness, an eroding Orcadian broch', in Ballin Smith, B and Banks, I In the shadow of the brochs: the Iron Age in Scotland, A celebration of the work of Dr. Euan MacKie on the Iron Age of Scotland Stroud
Page(s): 165, 166, 167

Gibson, J (2008) Rising tides: the loss of coastal heritage in Orkney,
Page(s): 30 Held at RCAHMS D.9.1.ALL

Hedges, J W (1987c) Bu, Gurness and the brochs of Orkney, part 3: the brochs of Orkney, Brit Archaeol Rep, BAR British, vol.165 Oxford
Page(s): 83-5 Held at RCAHMS P.81

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