Brechin Cathedral

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Alternative Names Brechin Parish Church; Brechin Round Tower; Round Tower, Brechin; Cathedral Of The See Of Brechin
Site Type CATHEDRAL, COFFIN (MEDIEVAL), ROUND TOWER
Canmore ID 35055
Site Number NO56SE 12
NGR NO 59625 60091
Council ANGUS
Parish BRECHIN
Former Region TAYSIDE
Former District ANGUS
Former County ANGUS
Datum OSGB36 - NGR

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Treasured Places - HLF funded

From at least the 10th century the site of Brechin Cathedral and round tower has been associated with the Christian church. Although many comparable towers are known in Ireland, the free-standing round tower is one of only two surviving examples from medieval Scotland

The 26m high tower is built of massive blocks of irregular sandstone and probably contained seven storeys with wooden floors. The original doorway to the tower stands over 2m above ground level and would have been accessed via a portable ladder. The round-headed entrance doorway is flanked by two projecting panels. The head of the arch is carved with a crucifixion and the main faces of each jamb bear an ecclesiastical figure or saint. To either side of the sill the panels are carved with crouching beasts. These carvings, together with the ornamented border around the door, may indicate a 10th-11th century date for the tower. Additional early medieval carved stones are located in the cathedral.

Information from RCAHMS (SC) June 2007
Cameron, N M (1994, 2007)

An image of this site has been nominated as one of Scotland's favourite archive images. For more information about the project visit http://www.treasuredplaces.org.uk


Architectural Notes

SURVEY:
This A-listed structure, which is also Scheduled and in Guardianship, was recorded as part of the Listed Buildings Recording Programme for 1999-2000. The survey was proposed because of the visible deterioration in the carvings around the doorway and the primary emphasis of the survey was to provide detailed records of these. Accordingly, detailed photographs of the carvings were taken in varied lighting conditions and a measured survey was also undertaken.

NMRS REFERENCE:

For information on current thinking on the date and artistic context of the Round Tower, see N M Cameron, 'St Rule's Tower and early church architecture in Scotland', PSAS, 1994 (124), 367-378.

Ardovie tomb which was Category B Listed was demolished in September/October 1969 at the request of the Kirk Session.
Information from Demolitions catalogue held in RCAHMS library.

ARCHITECT: John Honeyman 1900 - restoration.

PLANS: Ian G. Lindsay Collection, W/60.

EXTERNAL REFERENCE
National Library of Scotland
General Hutton uncatalogued manuscripts vol. 2 no 12 - drawing and engraving

(Undated) information in NMRS.

Notes and Activities Click to sort results by Event date ascending

Archaeological Notes

NO56SE 12.00 59625 60091.

NO56SE 12.01 NO 595 601 17 Channonry Wynd Trial Excavation
NO56SE 12.02 centred NO 5965 6009 Kirkyard

(NO 5963 6010) Church formerly (NAT) Cathedral (NR)
OS 6" map (1959)


 REFERENCE

Notes The cathedral of the See of Brechin, created c 1150, altered to serve as a post-Reformation parish church, with a c 1000 Irish-type round tower attached to the SW corner.
The original cruciform cathedral dedicated to the Holy Trinity appears to have remained intact until 1806 when major structural alterations were carried out. The north and south transepts were removed, new and wider aisles were built on each side of the nave and the outer walls were carried to such a height that the whole nave could be covered with a roof of one span.
13th century work survives in the west doorway, two of the nave piers and in portions of the ruined side-walls. A 15th century square tower flanks the doorway on the north.
The round tower, originally free-standing is 86'9" high with projecting base, and tapers upwards to the conical roof added in the 14th century. It is built of large sandstone blocks with internal string-courses which indicate division into seven storeys, with a large window facing each of the cardinal points at the top. The arched doorway is raised above ground level and displays typically Irish features such as inclined jambs.
D MacGibbon and T Ross 1896-7; D E Easson 1957; V G Childe and W D Simpson 1954

Further details

1885 to 1890
 PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD

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1930
 FIELD VISIT

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May 1951
 FIELD VISIT

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24 July 1958
 FIELD VISIT

Notes Brechin Cathedral is still in use for public worship. It has been so restored as to appear almost entirely modern. The round tower is being restored.


Further details

1982
 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

Project 1982 RCAHMS Aerial Survey

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21 November 1994
 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

Project 1994 RCAHMS Aerial Survey

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February 1996
 WATCHING BRIEF

Notes In February 1996 SUAT monitored contractors' groundworks for improvements within the grounds of Brechin Cathedral. The watching brief confirmed that the existing access area overlies what was once part of a medieval cemetery, showing that the entrance to the cathedral has been widened since the medieval period. The depth at which burials were found, at only 0.6m below the existing ground surface, implies that the ground surface has been reduced since the medieval period. This change most likely occurred during the extensive rebuilding work of the early 19th century.
The human remains indicated that the burials were in situ and in keeping with standard Christian burial practice (extended, supine, and aligned W-E). Fortunately, as so few human remains had to be disturbed during this project, it was possible to rebury them close to their point of displacement.
Sponsor: D A Kennedy (Construction) Ltd.
J MacKenzie 1996

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1997
 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

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31 August 1999 to 21 October 1999
 PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEY

Notes This A-listed structure, which is also Scheduled and in Guardianship, was recorded as part of the Listed Buildings Recording Programme for 1999-2000. The survey was proposed because of the visible deterioration in the carvings around the doorway and the primary emphasis of the survey was to provide detailed records of these. Accordingly, detailed photographs of the carvings were taken in varied lighting conditions and a measured survey was also undertaken.


Further details

7 August 2000 to 9 August 2000
 MEASURED SURVEY

Project Listed Buildings Recording Programme 1999

Notes This A-listed structure, which is also Scheduled and in Guardianship, was recorded as part of the Listed Buildings Recording Programme for 1999-2000. The survey was proposed because of the visible deterioration in the carvings around the doorway and the primary emphasis of the survey was to provide detailed records of these. Accordingly, detailed photographs of the carvings were taken in varied lighting conditions and a measured survey was also undertaken.

Further details

15 September 2000
 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

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13 February 2002
 PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEY

Project 2002 Area Photographic Survey

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2 December 2003
 WATCHING BRIEF

Notes Watching Brief on Positioning of Flood-Lighting at Brechin Cathedral, Brechin, Angus.

Further details

January 2005
 DESK BASED ASSESSMENT

Notes This building may be affected by a proposed development, in an area adjacent to Dubton Farm, Brechin. As a first step, a desk-based assessment was carried out to ascertain what likely impact any develpoment here would cause to the locality. No archaeological excavation was carried out, but maps and aerial photos were studied. Further work will be necessary if the development is to go ahead. Existing sites and buildings that will be affected were studied and listed.

Further details

2007
 PUBLICATION ACCOUNT

Project Civil Engineering heritage: Scotland - Lowlands and Borders

Notes This round tower is one of three in Scotland. There are 76 in Ireland. These towers, possibly built by Irish masons, are believed to be of religious origin and date from about the 10th century and may have contained bells. Their
purpose is unknown but possibly were intended as a lookout or place of safety in times of trouble.
The tower is about 85 ft high, built of coursed masonry, with a number of timber-floored storeys connected by ladder. A conical roof was added later. The entrance is about 7 ft above ground level. Another tower at
Abernethy is about 72 ft tall and of similar construction. A third round tower survives at Egilsay in the Shetlands. It is now only 50 ft high, having been shortened in the 19th century.
In civil engineering terms the towers were well sited and designed with tapering walls. It is conducive to the stability of Abernethy tower that its walls are about 8 in. thicker on the outside at their base, which is about 312
ft wider than at the tower top.
R Paxton and J Shipway, 2007.
Reproduced from 'Civil Engineering heritage: Scotland - Highlands and Islands' with kind permission from Thomas Telford Publishers.

Further details

24 August 2007
 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

Project 2007 RCAHMS Aerial Survey

Further details

 
External Links

Mason's Marks Project

Angus Historic Environment Record

Angus Historic Environment Record


 
Books and References

Adams, D G (1984) Celtic and medieval religious houses in Angus: abbeys, priories, hermitages, friaries, hospitals, colleges, cathedrals etc., Brechin
Page(s): 22 Held at RCAHMS D.13.11.ADA

Anon (1937c) '[Review of] Coltart, J.S., Scottish church architecture', Roy Incorporation Architects Scot Quart, vol.55
Page(s): 32

Billings, R W (1845-52) The baronial and ecclesiastical antiquities of Scotland, 4v Edinburgh
Held at RCAHMS D.2.R

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