Torphichen, Bowyett, Torphichen Preceptory And Torphichen Parish Church
Alternative Names Hospital Of Torphichen; Preceptory Of St John; War Memorials
Site Type CHURCH, PRECEPTORY, WAR MEMORIAL(S) (20TH CENTURY)
Canmore ID 47978
Site Number NS97SE 7
NGR NS 96894 72516
Council WEST LOTHIAN
Former Region LOTHIAN
Former District WEST LOTHIAN
Former County WEST LOTHIAN
Datum OSGB36 - NGR
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Torphichen Preceptory, 13th-15th century
Curious and atmospheric relic; the crossing and two transepts of the only house of the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem in Scotland. The vanished choir may never have been built: the parish kirk occupies the site of the nave. Traces of domestic offices, refectory and cloister remain on the north. In 1843, fragments of old massive buildings in the village and the stones in the fences over the face of the adjacent country (indicated) how great and magnificent a seat of population once surrounded the church. Atmospheric interior, currently gaunt and plain, its plaster having being stripped off. Exquisite traceried windows, one in each transept, and ribbed vaulting to transept and crossing, fine carved archway in the latter, with tomb recess and piscina in the south transept. Reached by turnpike are three upper domestic rooms (complete with fireplaces) devoted to an exhibition of the Knights Hospitallers.
Torphichen Parish Kirk, 1756
Neatly scaled T-plan kirk with scrolled skewputts and birdcage belfry: three lofts within, each reached independently, one from a picturesque forestair in the angle. Light interior with elegantly coved and corniced ceiling. Original bar pews - with reserved stalls for the knights, headed by the Prior of Scotland. The heraldic achievements on the two balcony fronts are those of Walter Lord Torphichen and Walter Gillon of Wallhouse. A plaque to Henry Bell (1767-1820), designer of the Comet (Europe¿s first steam-powered ship), born at nearby Torphichen Mill, is under the balcony. 1772 gatehouse in the peaceful kirkyard, several fine table tombs, and a sanctuary stone. Such stones once sat at a mile radius on each point of the compass, of which the Gormyre Stone to the east-north-east and the Westfield Stone survive.
Taken from "West Lothian: An Illustrated Architectural Guide", by Stuart Eydmann, Richard Jaques and Charles McKean, 2008. Published by the Rutland Press http://www.rias.org.uk
NS97SE 7 96894 72516
Collection item SMO T/5/1 has tentatively been linked to this location (AC 13 August 2002).
Scottish Record Office:-
Lord Torphichen's loft in the new church.
Letter from Alexander Innes to [Lady Torphichen].
He reports on the meeting of the Heritors and their consideration of the seating in Lord Torphichen's loft. They are of the opinion that a stair should be built to the loft.
Claims for seats in the new Church.
Letter from Lady Elizabeth Torphichen. She indicates the seating she requires and expresses the opinion that the church should be complted before their proportion of the cost was wholly paid. The letter to Robert Menzies accompanied plans of the old and new churches.
The National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, contains among the 'uncatalogued MSS of General Hutton and numbered 70, vol.1, a plan, dated 1813, of the remains of the Preceptory of Torphichen lying about five miles South of Linlithgow.
|Notes and Activities|
NS97SE 7 96894 72516
NS97SE 50.00 96872 72495 Churchyard
NS97SE 50.01 96826 72491 Gatehouse (Offertory)
For associated refuge or sanctuary stones, see NS97SW 2, and NS97SE 12, NS97SE 22, NS97SE 25, NS97SE 30.
(NS 9688 7251) Preceptory (NR) (remains of)
OS 6"map, (1968).
The preceptory and 'about a Scotch acre (6150.4sq yds) of land' were enclosed by a moat, 20ft wide, whose course can still distinctly traced (ie in 1843).
NSA (W M Hetherington 1843), 1845.
There is now no trace of a moat unless a small stream which encloses the area on three sides is taken as evidence of such. The Rev J Duns, Free Church Minister does not believe there ever was a moat.
Name Book 1856.
All that has survived of Torphichen Preceptory is the crossing and transepts of the church, surmounted respectively by a bell-tower and upper chambers (restored in the late 1920s). The first church was founded in the 12th century, and there were apparently two major reconstructions in 14th and 15th century. The site of the nave (see RCAHMS plan, fig.295) is now occupied by the parish church built in 1756 (G Hay 1957). The domestic range of the preceptory lay to the N, but the only indication now left is the roof-raggle on the transept gable. The precinct has evidently been walled and of considerable size, extending from Bowgate on the N (marked on OS 6" 1922 as "Tower & Gate" (site of), southwards to the remains of a circular tower in the manse garden, popularly spoken of as a dovecot, but more probably a gate or terminal tower. Foundations have been ploughed up 50 yds E of the churchyard. The Preceptor's apartments lay immediately W of the church, approximately on the site of the present vestry, and probably extended N along the W side of the cloister.
This was the only house of the Knights Hopitallers, or Knights of St. John, in Scotland; they received the lands of "Torphigan" from David I (1124-53). It was secularised in 1563/4
RCAHMS 1929, visited 1924; P Mackay 1968; D MacGibbon and T Ross 1887; D MacGibbon and T Ross 1897; D E Easson 1957; I B Cowan 1964; DoE 1967.
The Preceptory is as described. Part of the domestic
range has been uncovered.
Visited by OS (JP) 20 August 1974.
Angle tower at NS 9679 7243 has been demolished
Visited by RCAHMS(JBS) 12 August 1985.
NS 9689 7251 A short period of archaeological monitoring was undertaken in May 2003 during preparations for a new flag pole. Nothing of archaeological significance was found.
Archive to be deposited in the NMRS.
G Ewart 2003.
|April 2011||GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY|
Notes NS 96894 72516 In April 2011 members of the West Lothian Archaeology Group, including architectural historian Geoffrey Stell, viewed the architecture of Torphichen Perceptory, originally the Scottish headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, to examine its potential for further investigation. After viewing the Knights’ Garden, the group considered the area to the SW. At the lower end of the Bow Yett are the possible remains of the S gatehouse of the Preceptory, located adjacent to the exterior wall of the 18th-century Glebe gardens.
After a brief examination of the 13th-century remains of the gatehouse it was decided that the Glebe gardens may contain further remains of the tower itself. An examination of the gardens revealed a low raised bank in the area that could have housed the original tower, a position that would have overlooked the road N towards the fortified monastic settlement. The visibility of this feature increased when it was photographed in the near infra-red.
After consultation with the owner it was decided that an earth resistance geophysical survey could be performed across the area. A single 20 x 20m grid accommodated the survey area and a high sampling resolution was used to record the feature in detail. The results suggest that there is a low circular bank, with an outer diameter of 15m, surrounding the possible remains of a smaller, 4m diameter circular structure, off-centre towards the N, with a possible entrance on the SE side. This could reflect the foundation remains of the outer wall, with the tower base within the hollow. Although the presence of a modern gas main in the middle of the area would make any intrusive investigation difficult further work remains a possibility.
West Lothian Archaeology, 2011
|Books and References|
Baldwin, J (1997) Edinburgh, Lothians and the Borders, Exploring Scotland's Heritage series Edinburgh
Page(s): 151-2 No. 70 Held at RCAHMS A.1.4.HER
Baldwin, J R (1985) Exploring Scotland's heritage: Lothian and the Borders, Exploring Scotland's heritage series Edinburgh
Page(s): 109-10 Held at RCAHMS A.1.4.HER
Bonnar, T (1891c) 'Torphichen Church', Trans Edinburgh Architect Ass, vol.1