Crosskirk

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Alternative Names Chapel Pool
Site Type BROCH, INORGANIC MATERIAL (GLASS), UNIDENTIFIED POTTERY (ROMAN)
Canmore ID 8019
Site Number ND07SW 4
NGR ND 0248 7012
Council HIGHLAND
Parish REAY
Former Region HIGHLAND
Former District CAITHNESS
Former County CAITHNESS
Datum OSGB36 - NGR

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C14 Radiocarbon Dating
C14 radiocarbon dating

Notes and Activities Click to sort results by Event date ascending

 RCAHMS NOTE

Notes For the Pictish Symbol Stone found here (now lost), see ND07SW 4.01.

Further details


 DESK BASED ASSESSMENT

Notes `ND07SW 4 0248 7012.

(ND 0248 7112) Broch (NR) (rems of)
OS 1:10,000 map, (1975)

The broch at Crosskirk Bay, Reay, has an internal diameter of approximately 30 to 32ft and a wall 14 to 15ft thick. It has been broken into from the S, where there appears to have been an entrance to the left of which the sides of a chamber are visible in the wall. At the edge of the cliff, some 20ft of wall about 4 to 5ft high is exposed. On the landward side about 10ft from the broch are the remains of an outer bank or wall, now some 8ft wide at the base.
RCAHMS 1911; H Dryden 1871 (Soc of Antiqs Ms No. 21)

Information from OS.

Further details

25 August 1910
 FIELD VISIT

Notes At the edge of the rocks about 30 yards to the N. of the ruined church of St Mary's, Lybster, are the remains of a large broch. The structure has been broken into a small extent on the S., from which direction the entrance appears to have been. The interior diameter is not accurately ascertainable without excavation, but has been approximately 30' to 32'. The thickness of the wall is some 6' above the ground level on the exterior and 5' on the interior. On the left of the position of the entrance the sides of a chamber are visible in the wall. On the exterior, at the edge of a cliff, for a distance of some 20', a portion of wall, about 10' from the broch, are the remains of an outer bank or wall now some 8' wide at base.
The symbol stone, said to have been found in this broch, is illustrated in 'The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland', pt.111.p.30.
Visited by RCAHMS, 25th August 1910

Further details

28 October 1964
 FIELD VISIT

Notes This broch survives as a grass-covered circular enclosure, 1.1m maximum height internally. Traces of the outer wall face, 1.5m maximum height, are exposed in the SW, and in the N where the cliff edge has eroded. There the thickness of the wall is 5.5m. There is no evidence of the original entrance but it may have been in the S where the feature has been mutilated by excavation. Around the E periphery of the broch there is a shallow depression, and on the SW side a bank, 0.5m maximum height, may have formed part of the outer defences.
No further information could be found regarding the symbol stone found here.
Resurveyed at 1:2500.
Visited by OS (N K B) 28 October 1964.

Further details

1966 to 1972
 EXCAVATION

Notes The remains of this broch, unsafe through coastal erosion, was excavated by Fairhurst and Taylor from 1966 to 1972 on behalf of DoE, before being demolished, earthed over and seeded with grass. The excavation revealed evidence of a secondary settlement within an outwork on the east, and an extension of the entrance passage east-wards, part of which was converted,in the last stages of occupation, into a souterrain. The outwork commenced in the east in front of the broch entrance, as a wall 15'thick with an earth core. Further to the west where bedrock came near the surface, the outwork continued as a terrace-like feature with a 'cell-like' structure behind. In front was a ditch, largely natural, which was 3m deep. In the extreme west fence of flag-stones seems to have completed the defences. One of the final episodes in the occupation of the site was a burial in the centre of a roughly circular dwelling. The body had been placed in a sitting position and was unaccompanied by grave-goods. As well as native pottery, bonework, querns, etc., finds included 2nd century Samian and a fragment of possibly Roman glass, now in the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland (NMAS).
H Fairhurst, D B Taylor and A Morrison 1966; H Fairhurst 1969; H Fairhurst and D B Taylor 1970; H Fairhurst and D B Taylor 1971; H Fairhurst and D B Taylor 1972.

Further details

1971
 ARTEFACT RECOVERY

Notes Bronze spiral finger-rings.
E W MacKie 1971

Further details

1975
 REFERENCE

Notes Evidence of occupation as late as the 8th century was found during the excavations.
E W MacKie 1975.

Further details

13 November 1981
 FIELD VISIT

Notes This broch was excavated by Dr H Fairhurst and Mr D Taylor between 1966 and 1972. The wall survived to a maximum height of about 2.0m internally, and contained a rock-cut well. A rock-cut ditch encircled the tower, and the area between ditch and broch was fully occupied by secondary domestic structures. At the conclusion of the excavation the broch was buldozed over the edge of the cliff, and nothing remains of it or the outworks apart from some walling in the cliff face. A modern cairn marks the site.
A full excavation report is pending.
Visited by OS (N K B) 13 November 1981; Information from R B Gourlay, Highland Region Archaeologist.

Further details

 
Books and References

Allen and Anderson, J R and J (1903) The early Christian monuments of Scotland: a classified illustrated descriptive list of the monuments with an analysis of their symbolism and ornamentation, Edinburgh
Page(s): Pt. 3, 30 illust. Held at RCAHMS G.1.11.ALL

Armit and Ralston, I and I B M (2003) 'The Iron Age', in Edwards, K J and Ralston, I B M Scotland after the Ice Age: environment, archaeology and history 8000BC - AD 1000 Edinburgh
Page(s): 184

Armit, I (1992b) 'The Atlantic Scottish Iron Age: five levels of chronology', Proc Soc Antiq Scot, vol.121
Page(s): 207 illus 2

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Charity SC026749